A) Writ­ten and ver­bal ref­lec­ti­ons

Being ref­lec­ti­ve is one att­ri­bu­te of the IB le­ar­ner pro­fi­le: “We thought­ful­ly con­si­der the world and our own ide­as and ex­pe­rien­ce. We work to un­ders­tand our strengths and we­ak­nes­ses in or­der to sup­port our le­ar­ning and per­so­nal de­ve­lop­ment.”

Ele­ments of ref­lec­ti­on

Ref­lec­ti­on is a dy­na­mic me­ans for self-kno­wing, le­ar­ning and de­ci­si­on-ma­king. Four ele­ments as­sist in the CAS ref­lec­ti­ve pro­cess. The first two ele­ments form the foun­da­ti­on of ref­lec­ti­on.

The fol­lo­wing two ele­ments add gre­a­ter depth and ex­pand pers­pec­ti­ves.

Ex­ten­ding ref­lec­ti­on

Stu­dents can be en­cou­ra­ged to move for­ward through dee­per qu­es­ti­ons. For examp­le:

What did I do? could be­co­me:

How did I feel? could be­co­me:

B) Ot­her forms of ref­lec­ti­on

Writ­ten and ver­bal ref­lec­ti­ons are the most com­mon ways stu­dents ref­lect. Ho­we­ver, me­a­ning­ful ref­lec­ti­on can be exp­res­sed in va­ri­ous ways:

1. Vi­su­al ref­lec­ti­on

Vi­su­al ref­lec­ti­on can be ac­comp­lis­hed through:

2. Ki­nest­he­tic ref­lec­ti­on

Ki­nest­he­tic ref­lec­ti­on can be ac­comp­lis­hed through:

3. Au­di­to­ry ref­lec­ti­on

Au­di­to­ry ref­lec­ti­on can be ac­comp­lis­hed through:

C) Time for ref­lec­ti­on

1) Stu­dents choo­se sig­ni­fi­cant mo­ments as the ba­sis for ref­lec­ti­on, for examp­le when:

–– a mo­ment of dis­co­ve­ry is hap­pe­ning

–– a skill is mas­te­red

–– a chal­len­ge is conf­ron­ted

–– emo­ti­ons are pro­vo­ked

–– ac­hie­ve­ment de­ser­ves ce­leb­ra­ti­on.

2) Stu­dents ref­lect du­ring or at the end of a CAS ex­pe­rien­ce or se­ries of CAS ex­pe­rien­ces, to iden­ti­fy im­por­tant mo­ments, dis­cuss a pos­sib­le le­ar­ning out­co­me, re­cog­ni­ze per­so­nal growth and ac­hie­ve­ments, and plan for their next CAS ex­pe­rien­ce.

3) Stu­dents en­ga­ge in group ref­lec­ti­on with their peers to dis­co­ver sha­red in­sights.

4) Stu­dents ref­lect at the be­gin­ning, du­ring, and at the end of a se­ries of CAS ex­pe­rien­ces. This enab­les stu­dents to de­li­be­ra­te on such ele­ments as plan­ning, op­por­tu­ni­ties, ex­pec­ta­ti­ons, chal­len­ges, prog­ress, and per­so­nal growth.

D) Un­ders­tan­ding ref­lec­ti­on

One way to exp­lain ref­lec­ti­on is to cla­ri­fy what ref­lec­ti­on is and what it is not. A help­ful way to ini­ti­a­te dis­cus­si­on of the ref­lec­ti­ve pro­cess is for stu­dents to col­la­bo­ra­te with their peers and draw up their own com­pa­ri­son tab­le. This chart shows examp­les of what stu­dents may list and dis­cuss.

Ref­lec­ti­on is:                                                                         

     Ref­lec­ti­on is not:

E) Ref­lec­ti­on and the CAS le­ar­ning out­co­mes

Ref­lec­ti­on is the pri­ma­ry evi­den­ce used by CAS coor­di­na­tors to de­ter­mi­ne whet­her stu­dents have

suc­cess­ful­ly at­tai­ned the se­ven CAS le­ar­ning out­co­mes. Ho­we­ver, it is im­por­tant to note that not all ref­lec­ti­ons should or must dis­cuss le­ar­ning out­co­mes.

When you wri­te ref­lec­ti­ons or give evi­den­ce, do not for­get to choo­se the app­rop­ri­a­te Le­ar­ning Out­co­mes add­res­sed!

Samp­les of Stu­dent ref­lec­ti­ons:

1. Te­ac­hers re­port uni­que ways stu­dents have pre­sen­ted their ref­lec­ti­ons


2. A se­ries of writ­ten ref­lec­ti­ons by one stu­dent


3. Exp­res­si­ons of ob­ser­va­ti­ons, thoughts and fee­lings by three dif­fe­rent stu­dent


Kuo­pi­on Ly­se­on lu­kio - CAS Hand­book2023-202423.4.2019